THE ELASMODIVER SHARK AND RAY FIELD GUIDE

 

SHARK GUIDE

SHARK PICTURES

WHAT'S NEW?

SHARK BLOG

MERCHANDISE

SHARK TRIPS

SITE MAP

E-MAIL

 

 SHARK INFO

SHARK & RAY FIELD GUIDE

SHARK PICTURE DATABASE

SHARK TAXONOMY

SHARK

BIOLOGY

SHARK EVOLUTION

SHARK FACTS FOR KIDS

 

SHARK DIVING

SHARK DIVING EXPEDITIONS

SHARK DIVING 101

SHARK DIVING HOTSPOTS

SHARK DIVING STORIES

SHARK FEEDING ADVICE

SHARK

ATTACKS

 

CONSERVATION

SHARKS UNDER THREAT

PREDATORS IN PERIL

 

PHOTOGRAPHY

SHARK PHOTO TIPS

DAILY SHARK IMAGES

 

RESOURCES

SHARK NEWS

SHARK LINKS

SHARK BOOKS

SHARK FILMS

SHARK TERMS

 

WEB STUFF

CONTACT ELASMODIVER

ABOUT ELASMODVR

ANDY MURCH ELASMO GEEK

 

WHAT IS ELASMODIVER?

Not just a huge collection of Shark Pictures: Elasmodiver.com contains images of sharks, skates, rays, and a few chimaera's from around the world. Elasmodiver began as a simple web based shark field guide to help divers find the best places to encounter the different species of sharks and rays that live in shallow water but it has slowly evolved into a much larger project containing information on all aspects of shark diving and shark photography.

There are now more than 10,000 shark pictures  and sections on shark evolution, biology, and conservation. There is a large library of reviewed shark books, a constantly updated shark taxonomy page, a monster list of shark links, and deeper in the site there are numerous articles and stories about shark encounters. Elasmodiver is now so difficult to check for updates, that new information and pictures are listed on an Elasmodiver Updates Page that can be accessed here:

WHAT'S NEW?

Shark picture - green sawfish

_

 

 

 

COWTAIL STINGRAY

cowtail stingray

View all available Cowtail Stingray Pictures in the Shark Pictures Database

Common Names: Cowtail stingray, Feathertail stingray  

Accepted Binomial: Pastinachus sephen   Synonym(s): Hypolophus sephen

Family: Dasyatidae  

Identification: Thick rhomboid disc. Posterior margins of disc mildly convex. Anterior margins almost straight. Dorsum grey/brown. Eyes small and widely spaced. Tail less than 2 times body length with broad, long ventral tailfold. Tailfold 2-3 times as high as tail. Tailfold does not reach tip when filament intact. Tail/tailfold beyond tailfold origin is black.

Size: Max disc width 1.8m. Maximum length 3m.

Habitat: Estuarine environments and Sandy bottoms sometimes adjacent to reefs from intertidal areas to approx. 60m. Also enters fresh water environments and has been recorded 1000 miles up the Ganges River.  

Abundance and distribution: Widespread throughout the Indo Pacific from South Africa and the Red Sea to Japan and south to Australia and western Pacific.  

Behavior:  The cowtail stingray moves onto tidal flats in search of prey. Sometimes ascends rivers. Feeds on bony fishes, snails, bivalves, and sea squirts.

Reproduction: Ovoviviparous

Conservation Status: Listed as Data Deficient by the IUCN. The Cowtail Stingray (Pastinachus sephen) is reported throughout a wide range from the western Indian Ocean to the western Pacific, but may be a complex of species. It is captured in demersal tangle net, bottom trawl, longline, Danish seine and beach seine fisheries in Southeast Asia and parts of the Indian Ocean. Inshore fishing pressure is intense throughout large areas of the species' range in Southeast Asia and in parts of the Indian Ocean. It is caught in particularly high numbers in the target fishery for rhynchobatids operating in the Arafura Sea. Although no species-specific data are available, overall catches of stingrays are reported to be declining, with fishermen having to travel further and further to sustain catch levels. Given continuing high levels of exploitation throughout its range in Southeast Asia and evidence for declines in catches of stingrays, it is regionally assessed as Vulnerable there. Fisheries in northern Australia are generally well managed and the introduction of Turtle Exclusion Devices (TEDs) and other exclusion devices will have greatly reduced bycatch of this species. The species is considered at minimal threat throughout its wide range off northern Australia, where it is assessed as Least Concern. Globally, investigation is vital to resolve the taxonomic issues associated with this species complex and it is not possible to assess it beyond Data Deficient at present. Further work is required to identify the species involved and make full assessments of their status.

Photographs: Exmouth Navy Pier, W.A.  

Similar species: Eastern Cowtail Stingray - Pastinachus atrus, Narrowtail stingray - Pastinachus gracilicaudus.

Reaction to divers:  Apparently curious. May buzz divers quite closely. Not prone to flight when approached. 

Diving logistics: Cowtail stingrays are present over a large area accessible to divers but I am not aware of any area where they can be reliably seen.

Citations and References:

Fahmi, White, W. & Manjaji, B.M. 2009. Pastinachus sephen. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T161332A5400078. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T161332A5400078.en . Downloaded on 27 October 2015

 

HOME     LINKS     TAXONOMY      UNDER THREAT     BOOKS     CONTACT

 SHARK TRIPS

Sawfish Diving
 

MORE EXPEDITIONS

 

 

 

SPONSORS

 

ADVERTISERS

 

ELASMO-BLOGS

SharkPictures   Shark & Ray Field Guide   SharkPhotography   SharkDiving   Taxonomy   Evolution   Biology   SharkAttacks   Books   Shark Movies   Stories   Extinction   Protection   Updates   SiteMap

 

CONTACT ELASMODIVER

elasmodiver@gmail.com

250-588-8267

P.O.Box 8719 Station Central, Victoria, BC., V8W 3S3, Canada