Not just a huge collection of Shark Pictures: contains images of sharks, skates, rays, and a few chimaera's from around the world. Elasmodiver began as a simple web based shark field guide to help divers find the best places to encounter the different species of sharks and rays that live in shallow water but it has slowly evolved into a much larger project containing information on all aspects of shark diving and shark photography.

There are now more than 10,000 shark pictures  and sections on shark evolution, biology, and conservation. There is a large library of reviewed shark books, a constantly updated shark taxonomy page, a monster list of shark links, and deeper in the site there are numerous articles and stories about shark encounters. Elasmodiver is now so difficult to check for updates, that new information and pictures are listed on an Elasmodiver Updates Page that can be accessed here:


Shark picture - green sawfish






The taxonomy of sharks and rays

The taxonomy of sharks and rays is a subject that remains in hot debate. Although the majority of elasmobranch families have been nailed down there will always be individual species that don't quite fit the characteristics of their sibling species. Consequently species are occasionally reclassified or simply listed as awaiting review. One of the most confusing of families is the Potamotrygonidae - the fresh water stingrays of South America. Not only do these ray species adopt extremely varied patterns that are sometimes visually indistinguishable from other species, they also produce hybrids in certain parts of their ranges leaving us wondering what exactly a true species is anyway.

Among shark taxonomists conservative estimates of the number of known shark species is now approaching 500. Combined with the 700 or more species of rays and skates there are well over a thousand valid species of elasmobranches. In the past many more species were described only to be discounted later as being synonymous with elasmobranches already described from other geographic areas. In recent years this problem has lessened because taxonomic data has become easier to share over the internet. However, taxonomists are as vain as the rest of us and in their efforts to be the first to describe (and name) a new species there is often a counterproductive lack of collaboration.

Some abyssal species have been described from only one or two specimens captured during deep water trawls. This implies that in all likelihood there are many shark and ray species lurking on the abyssal plain that have not yet been seen or captured. The best example being the relatively recent discovery of the Megamouth Shark. If this large and slow moving shark could remain hidden until the 1980's, who knows how many other elasmobranches have gone unnoticed.

Following is a list (in need of an update) of all the described species of elasmobranchs. Included at the bottom are the Holocephali (the chimaeras or ghost sharks) that share many characteristics with modern sharks and rays but are thought to be descended from a different group of cartilaginous fishes that thrived during the Late Devonian Period.


Shark Family Tree

Other pages on Elasmodiver relating to Shark and Ray taxonomy:


Newly described sharks and rays

Occasionally new species of sharks and rays are described by science. In some cases they have been well known for a while e.g. the Western wobbegong but no one has gotten around to describing them. More exciting is when a deep water trawl or a lucky diving expedition uncovers a species that the scientific community was completely unaware of. This page on elasmodiver highlights the discovery of these species. Many thanks to Helmut Nickel who somehow manages to find out whenever a new species is described and diligently informs the rest of the lay community of shark fanatics through Shark-L. Without his input I wouldn't have a clue.

If you have information about a species I have overlooked please email me the information and I will add it to the list.

Description of the Dasyatidae - Whiptail Stingrays

Includes a key to identifying the genus of the Dasyatidae (Whiptail stingrays).


Description of the Potamotrygonidae - River Stingrays

Includes a key to identifying the genus of the Potamotrygonidae (River Stingrays).




PHYLUM CHORDATA - Animals that at some point in their life cycle have the following: Pharyngeal slits (a series of openings connecting the inside of the throat to the outside of the neck. In fish these become gill slits), dorsal nerve cord (a bundle of nerve fibres running down the back, connecting the brain with the organs and extremities, a notochord (a cartilaginous rod supporting the nerve cord), post anal tail (an extension of the 'back' past the anal opening).


SUBPHYLUM VERTEBRATA - Animals with a vertibral column or backbone and neural crest cells which are released as the nerve cord is forming, these cells move through the body to form major nerves, neural ganglia, and many head and facial features. Other features that separate vertebrates from other chordates include: a relatively well-developed brain, paired complex eyes, a muscularized mouth and pharynx, and a well-developed circulatory system with a heart.


CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES - Cartilaginous fishes lacking true bone. Chondrichthyes can be split into two distinct subclasses ELASMOBRANCHII and BRADYODONTI.


SUBCLASS ELASMOBRANCHII - SHARKS, SKATES AND RAYS (and some fossil relatives). Elasmobranchs have an upper jaw that is not fused to the braincase and separate slitted gill openings.



HEXANCHIFORMES - Sixgill, Sevengill and Frilled Sharks  

SQUALIFORMES - Dogfish Sharks, sleeper sharks, gulper sharks and lantern sharks





LAMNIFORMES - Mackerel Sharks





MYLIOBATIFORMES - Stingrays, Eagle rays, Butterfly rays, Devil rays, Cownose rays






SUBCLASS HOLOCEPHALI - includes forms with an upper jaw fused to the braincase and a flap of skin, the operculum, covering the gill slits. The Holocephalii includes the chimaeras and ratfishes, which are relatively rare, often deep-water, mollusc-eating forms.








Order HEXANCHIFORMES - Sixgill, Sevengill and Frilled Sharks


Family CHLAMYDOSELA  - Frilled Sharks

Chlamydoselachus anguineus - Frilled shark


Family HEXANCHIDAE  - Sixgill and Sevengill Sharks

Heptranchias perlo - Sharpnose sevengill shark

Hexanchus griseus - Bluntnose sixgill shark

Hexanchus nakamurai - Bigeye sixgill shark

Hexanchus vitulus - Atlantic bigeye sixgill shark

Notorynchus cepedianus - Broadnose or spotted sevengill shark


Order SQUALIFORMES - Dogfish Sharks


Family CENTROPHORIDAE - Gulper Sharks

Centrophorus acus - Needle dogfish

Centrophorus granulosus - Gulper shark

Centrophorus harrissoni - Dumb gulper shark

Centrophorus lusitanicus - Lowfin gulper shark

Centrophorus moluccensis - Smallfin gulper shark

Centrophorus niaukang - Taiwan gulper shark

Centrophorus squamosus - Leafscale gulper shark

Centrophorus tesselatus - Mosaic gulper shark

Centrophorus uyato - Little gulper shark

Deania calcea - Birdbeak dogfish

Deania hystricosum - Rough longnose dogfish

Deania profundorum - Arrowhead dogfish

Deania quadrispinosum - Longsnout dogfish


Family DALATIIDAE - Kitefin Sharks

Dalatias licha - Kitefin shark

Euprotomicroides zantedeschia - Taillight shark

Europtomicrus bispinatus - Pygmy shark

Heteroscymnoides marleyi - Longnose pygmy shark

Isistius brasiliensis - Cookiecutter or cigar shark

Isistius plutodus - Largetooth cookiecutter shark

Mollisquama mississippiensis - Grace et al, 2019. Mississippi kitefin shark

Mollisquama parini - Softskin dogfish

Squaliolus laticaudus - Spined pygmy shark


Family ECHINORHINIDAE - Bramble Sharks

Echinorhinus brucus - Bramble shark

Echinorhinus cookei - Prickly shark


Family ETMOPTERIDAE - Lantern Sharks

Aculeola nigra - Hooktooth dogfish

Centroscyllium fabricii - Black dogfish

Centroscyllium granulatum - Granular dogfish

Centroscyllium kamoharai - Bareskin dogfish

Centroscyllium nigrum - Combtooth dogfish

Centroscyllium ornatum - Ornate dogfish

Centroscyllium ritteri - Whitefin dogfish

Etmopterus baxteri - New Zealand lanternshark

Etmopterus benchleyi - Benchley's lanternshark

Etmopterus brachyurus - Shorttail lanternshark

Etmopterus bullisi - Lined lanternshark

Etmopterus carteri - Cylindrical lanternshark

Etmopterus decacuspidatus - Combtooth lanternshark

Etmopterus gracilispinis - Broadband lanternshark

Etmopterus granulosus - Southern lanternshark

Etmopterus hillianus - Carribean lanternshark

Etmopterus lucifer - Blackbelly lanternshark

Etmopterus perryi - Dwarf lanternshark

Etmopterus polli - African lanternshark

Etmopterus princeps - Great lanternshark

Etmopterus pusillus - Smooth lanternshark

Etmopterus schultzi - Fringefin lanternshark

Etmopterus sentosus - Thorny lanternshark

Etmopterus spinax - Velvet belly lanternshark

Etmopterus unicolor - Brown lanternshark

Etmopterus villosus - Hawaiian lanternshark

Etmopterus virens - Green lanternshark


Family SOMNIOSIDAE - Sleeper Sharks

Centroscymnus coelolepis - Portuguese dogfish

Centroscymnus crepidater - Longnose velvet dogfish

Centroscymnus cryptacanthus - Shortnose velvet dogfish

Centroscymnus macracanthus - Largespine velvet dogfish

Centroscymnus owstoni - Roughskin dogfish

Centroscymnus plunketi - Plunket shark

Scymnodalatias sherwoodi - Sherwood dogfish

Scymnodon ichiharai - Japanese velvet dogfish

Scymnodon ringens - Knifetooth dogfish

Scymnodon squamulosus - Greenland sleeper shark

Somniosus microcephalus - Greenland Shark

Somniosus pacificus - Pacific sleeper shark

Somniosus rostratus - Little sleeper shark


Family SQUALIDAE - Dogfish Sharks

Cirrhigaleus asper - Roughskin spurdog

Cirrhigaleus australis - Southern mandarin dogfish

Cirrhigaleus barbifer - Mandarin dogfish

Squalus acanthias - Spiny dogfish

Squalus albifrons - Eastern highfin spurdog

Squalus altipinnis - Western highfin spurdog

Squalus blainvillei - Longnose spurdog

Squalus brevirostris - Japanese shortnose spurdog

Squalus bucephalus - Bighead spurdog

Squalus chloroculus - Greeneye spurdog

Squalus crassispinus - Fatspine spurdog

Squalus cubensis - Cuban dogfish

Squalus edmundsi - Edmund's spurdog

Squalus formosus - Taiwan spurdog

Squalus grahami - Eastern longnose spurdog

Squalus griffini - Northern spiny dogfish

Squalus hawaiiensis - Hawaiian dogfish

Squalus hemipinnis - Indonesian shortsnout spurdog

Squalus japonicus - Japanese spurdog

Squalus lalannei - Seychelles spurdog

Squalus megalops - Shortnose spurdog

Squalus melanurus - Blacktail spurdog

Squalus mitsukurii - Shortspine spurdog

Squalus montalbani - Indonesian greeneye spurdog

Squatina nasutus - Western longnosed spurdog

Squalus notocaudatus - Bartail spurdog

Squalus rancureli - Cyrano spurdog

Squalus raoulensis - Kermadec spiny dogfish

Squalus suckleyi - Pacific spiny dogfish


Family OXYNOTIDAE - Roughsharks

Oxynotus bruniensis - Prickly dogfish

Oxynotus carribaeus - Carribean roughshark

Oxynotus centrina - Angular roughshark

Oxynotus japonicus - Japanese roughshark

Oxynotus paradoxus - Sailfin roughshark




Family PRISTIOPHORIDAE - Sawsharks

Pristiophorus nancyae - African dwarf sawshark

Pliotrema warreni - Sixgill sawshark

Pristiophorus cirratus - Longnose sawshark

Pristiophorus japonicus - Japanese sawshark

Pristiophorus nudipinnis - Shortnose sawshark

Pristiophorus schroederi - Bahamas sawshark


Order SQUATINIFORMES - Angelsharks


Family SQUATINIDAE - Angelsharks
Squatina aculeata - Sawback angelshark

Squatina albipunctata - Eastern Australian angelshark

Squatina africana - African angelshark

Squatina argentina - Argentine angelshark

Squatina australis - Australian angelshark

Squatina californica - Pacific angelshark

Squatina caillieti - Philippine angelshark

Squatina dumeril - Sand devil

Squatina formosa - Taiwan angelshark

Squatina guggenheim - Angular angelshark

Squatina japonica - Japanese angelshark

Squatina nebulosa - Clouded angelshark

Squatina oculata - Smoothback angelshark

Squatina squatina - Common Angel Shark

Squatina tergocellata - Ornate angelshark

Squatina tergocellatoides - Ocellated angelshark


  Order HETERODONTIFORMES - Bullhead Sharks


Family HETERODONTIDAE - Bullhead Sharks

Heterodontus francisci - Horn shark

Heterodontus galeatus - Crested bullhead shark

Heterodontus japonicus - Japanese bullhead shark

Heterodontus mexicanus - Mexican hornshark

Heterodontus omanensis - Oman bullhead shark

Heterodontus portusjacksoni - Port Jackson shark

Heterodontus quoyi - Galapagos bullhead shark

Heterodontus ramalheira - Whitespotted bullhead shark

Heterodontus zebra - Zebra bullhead shark


Order ORECTOLOBIFORMES - Carpetsharks


Family PARASCYLLIDAE - Collared Carpetsharks

Cirrhoscyllium expolitum - Barbelthroat carpetshark

Cirrhoscyllium formosanum - Taiwan saddled carpetshark

Cirrhoscyllium japonicum - Saddled carpetshark

Parascyllium ferrugineum - Rusty carpetshark

Parascyllium multimaculatum - Tasmanian carpetshark

Parascyllium variolatum - Necklace carpetshark or Varied carpetshark


Family BRACHAELURIDAE - Blind Sharks

Brachaelurus waddi - Blind shark

Heteroscyllium colcloughi - Colclough's carpetshark


Family ORECTOLOBIDAE - Wobbegongs

Eucrossorhinus dasypogon - Tasselled wobbegong

Orectolobus floridus - Floral wobbegong

Orectolobus halei - Banded wobbegong

Orectolobus hutchinsi - Western wobbegong

Orectolobus japonicus - Japanese wobbegong

Orectolobus leptolineatus - Indonesian wobbegong

Orectolobus maculatus - Spotted wobbegong

Orectolobus ornatus - Ornate wobbegong

Orectolobus parvimaculatus - Dwarf spotted wobbegong

Orectolobus reticulatus -  Network wobbegong

Orectolobus sp. A - Papuan wobbegong

Orectolobus wardi - Northern wobbegong

Sutorectus tentaculatus - Cobbler wobbegong


Family HEMISCYLLIDAE - Longtailed Carpetsharks

Chiloscyllium arabicum - Arabian carpetshark

Chiloscyllium burmensis - Burmese bambooshark

Chiloscyllium caerulopunctatum - Bluespotted bambooshark

Chiloscyllium griseum - Grey bambooshark

Chiloscyllium hasselti - Indonesian bambooshark

Chiloscyllium indicum - Slender bambooshark

Chiloscyllium plagiosum - Whitespotted bambooshark

Chiloscyllium punctatum - Brownbanded bambooshark

Hemiscyllium freycineti - Indonesian speckled epaulette shark

Hemiscyllium galei - Cendrawasi epaulette shark

Hemiscyllium hallstromi - Papuan epaulette shark

Hemiscyllium halmahera - Halmahera epaulette shark

Hemiscyllium henryi - Henrys or Triton Bay epaulette shark

Hemiscyllium michaeli - Milne Bay epaulette shark

Hemiscyllium ocellatum - Epaulette shark

Hemiscyllium strahani - Hooded epaulette shark

Hemiscyllium trispeculare - Speckled epaulette shark

Hemiscyllium sp. - Seychelles epaulette shark



Psuedoginglymostoma brevicaudatum - Shorttail nurse shark

Ginglymostoma cirratum - Nurse shark

Ginglymostoma unami - Pacific nurse shark

Nebrius ferrugineus - Tawny nurse shark


Family STEGOSTOMATIDAE - Zebra Sharks

Stegostoma fasciatum - Zebra shark


Family RHINCODONTIDAE - Whale Sharks

Rhincodon typus - Whale shark


Order LAMNIFORMES - Mackerel Sharks


Family ODONTASPIDIDAE - Sand Tiger Sharks

Carcharias taurus - Sand tiger, spotted raggedtooth, or grey nurse shark

Odontaspis ferox - Smalltooth sand tiger or bumpytail raggedtooth

Odontaspis noronhai - Bigeye sand tiger


Family PSEUDOCARCHARIDAE - Crocodile Sharks

Pseudocarcharias kamoharai - Crocodile shark

Family MITSUKURINIDAE - Goblin Sharks

Mitsukurina owstoni - Goblin shark


Family MEGACHASMIDAE - Megamouth Sharks

Megachasma pelagios - Megamouth Shark


Family ALOPIIDAE - Thresher Sharks

Alopias pelagicus - Pelagic thresher

Alopias superciliosus - Bigeye thresher

Alopias vulpinus - Common thresher shark


Family CETORHINIDAE - Basking Sharks

Cetorhinus maximus - Basking shark


Family LAMNIDAE - Mackerel Sharks

Carcharodon carcharias - Great white shark

Isurus oxyrinchus - Shortfin mako

Isurus paucus - Longfin mako

Lamna ditropis - Salmon shark

Lamna nasus - Pobeagle shark




Family SCYLIORHINIDAE - Catsharks

Apristurus albisoma - Nakaya & Séret, 1999 (White-bodied catshark)
Apristurus ampliceps - Sasahara, K. Sato & Nakaya, 2008 (Roughskin catshark)
Apristurus aphyodes - Nakaya & Stehmann, 1998 (White ghost catshark)
Apristurus australis - K. Sato, Nakaya & Yorozu, 2008 (Pinocchio catshark)
Apristurus breviventralis - Kawauchi, Weigmann & Nakaya, 2014 (Shortbelly catshark) [2]
Apristurus brunneus - C. H. Gilbert 1892 Brown catshark
Apristurus bucephalus - W. T. White, Last & Pogonoski, 2008 (Bighead catshark)
Apristurus canutus - S. Springer & Heemstra, 1979 (Hoary catshark)
Apristurus exsanguis - K. Sato, Nakaya & A. L. Stewart, 1999 (Flaccid catshark)
Apristurus fedorovi - Dolganov, 1985 (Fedorov's catshark)
Apristurus garricki - K. Sato, A. L. Stewart & Nakaya, 2013 (Garrick's catshark) [3]
Apristurus gibbosus - Y. T. Chu, Q. W. Meng & S. Li, 1985 (Humpback catshark)
Apristurus herklotsi - Fowler, 1934 (Longfin catshark)
Apristurus indicus - A. B. Brauer, 1906 (Smallbelly catshark)
Apristurus internatus - S. M. Deng, G. Q. Xiong & H. X. Zhan, 1988 (Shortnose demon catshark)
Apristurus investigatoris - Misra, 1962 (Broadnose catshark)
Apristurus japonicus - Nakaya, 1975 (Japanese catshark)
Apristurus kampae - L. R. Taylor, 1972 (Longnose catshark)
Apristurus laurussonii - Sæmundsson, 1922 (Iceland catshark)
Apristurus longicephalus - Nakaya, 1975 (Longhead catshark)
Apristurus macrorhynchus - S. Tanaka (I), 1909 (Flathead catshark)
Apristurus macrostomus - Q. W. Meng, Y. T. Chu & S. Li, 1985 (Broadmouth catshark)
Apristurus manis - S. Springer, 1979 (Ghost catshark)
Apristurus melanoasper - Iglésias, Nakaya & Stehmann, 2004 (Black roughscale catshark)
Apristurus microps - Gilchrist, 1922 (Smalleye catshark)
Apristurus micropterygeus - Q. W. Meng, Y. T. Chu & S. Li, 1986 (Smalldorsal catshark)
Apristurus nakayai - Iglésias, 2013 (Milk-eye catshark) [4]
Apristurus nasutus - F. de Buen, 1959 (Largenose catshark)
Apristurus parvipinnis - S. Springer & Heemstra, 1979 (Smallfin catshark)
Apristurus pinguis - S. M. Deng, G. Q. Xiong & H. X. Zhan, 1983 (Bulldog catshark)
Apristurus platyrhynchus - S. Tanaka (I), 1909 (Spatulasnout catshark or Borneo catshark)
Apristurus profundorum - Goode & T. H. Bean, 1896 (Deepwater catshark)
Apristurus riveri - Bigelow & Schroeder, 1944 (Broadgill catshark)
Apristurus saldanha - Barnard, 1925 (Saldanha catshark)
Apristurus sibogae - M. C. W. Weber, 1913 (Pale catshark)
Apristurus sinensis - Y. T. Chu & A. S. Hu, 1981 (South China catshark)
Apristurus spongiceps - C. H. Gilbert, 1905 (Spongehead catshark)
Apristurus stenseni - S. Springer, 1979 (Panama ghost catshark)
Apristurus sp. X - Not yet described (Galbraith's catshark)
Apristurus sp. 3 - Not yet described (Black wonder catshark)
Apristurus sp. - nov. Not yet described (White-edged catshark)
Apristurus sp. - Not yet described (Gray ghost catshark)

Asymbolus analis - (J. D. Ogilby, 1885) (Australian spotted catshark)
Asymbolus funebris - Compagno, Stevens & Last, 1999 (Blotched catshark)
Asymbolus galacticus - Séret & Last, 2008 (Starry catshark)
Asymbolus occiduus - Last, M. F. Gomon & Gledhill, 1999 (Western spotted catshark)
Asymbolus pallidus - Last, M. F. Gomon & Gledhill, 1999 (Pale spotted catshark)
Asymbolus parvus - Compagno, Stevens & Last, 1999 (Dwarf catshark)
Asymbolus rubiginosus - Last, M. F. Gomon & Gledhill, 1999 (Orange-spotted catshark)
Asymbolus submaculatus - Compagno, Stevens & Last, 1999 (Variegated catshark)
Asymbolus vincenti - (Zietz (fi), 1908) (Gulf catshark)

Atelomycterus baliensis - W. T. White, Last & Dharmadi, 2005 (Bali catshark)
Atelomycterus erdmanni - Fahmi & W. T. White, 2015 (Spotted-belly catshark) [1]
Atelomycterus fasciatus - Compagno & Stevens, 1993 (Banded sand catshark)
Atelomycterus macleayi - Whitley, 1939 (Australian marbled catshark)
Atelomycterus marmoratus - Anonymous, referred to E. T. Bennett, 1830 (Coral catshark)
Atelomycterus marnkalha - Jacobsen & M. B. Bennett, 2007 (Eastern banded catshark)

Aulohalaelurus kanakorum - Séret, 1990 (Kanakorum catshark)
Aulohalaelurus labiosus - Waite, 1905 (Australian blackspotted catshark)

Bythaelurus alcockii - (Garman, 1913) (Arabian catshark) [1]

Bythaelurus canescens - (Günther, 1878) (Dusky catshark)

Bythaelurus clevai - (Séret, 1987) (Broadhead catshark)
Bythaelurus dawsoni - (S. Springer, 1971) (New Zealand catshark)
Bythaelurus giddingsi - J. E. McCosker, Long & C. C. Baldwin, 2012 (Galápagos catshark)
Bythaelurus hispidus - (Alcock, 1891) (Bristly catshark)
Bythaelurus immaculatus - (Y. T. Chu & Q. W. Meng, 1982) (Spotless catshark)
Bythaelurus incanus - Last & J. D. Stevens, 2008 (Sombre catshark)
Bythaelurus lutarius - (S. Springer & D'Aubrey, 1972) (Mud catshark)
Bythaelurus naylori - Ebert & Clerkin, 2015 (Dusky snout catshark) [1]
Bythaelurus stewarti - Weigmann, Kaschner, and Thiel, 2018 (Error Seamount catshark)[2]
Bythaelurus tenuicephalus - Kaschner, Weigmann & Thiel, 2015 (Narrowhead catshark) [3]

Cephaloscyllium albipinnum - Last, Motomura & W. T. White, 2008 (Whitefin swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium cooki - Last, Séret & W. T. White, 2008 (Cook's swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium fasciatum - W. L. Y. Chan, 1966 (Reticulated swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium hiscosellum - W. T. White & Ebert, 2008 (Australian reticulate swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium isabellum - Bonnaterre, 1788 (Draughtsboard shark)
Cephaloscyllium laticeps - A. H. A. Duméril, 1853 (Australian swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium pictum - Last, Séret & W. T. White, 2008 (Painted swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium sarawakensis - Ka. Yano, A. Ahmad & Gambang, 2005 (Sarawak pygmy swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium signourum - Last, Séret & W. T. White, 2008 (Flagtail swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium silasi - Talwar, 1974 (Indian swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium speccum - Last, Séret & W. T. White, 2008 (Speckled swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium stevensi - E. Clark & J. E. Randall, 2011 (Steven's swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium sufflans - Regan, 1921 (Balloon shark)
Cephaloscyllium umbratile - D. S. Jordan & Fowler, 1903 (Blotchy swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium variegatum - Last, Séret & W. T. White, 2008 (Saddled swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium ventriosum - Garman, 1880 (Swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium zebrum - Last, Séret & W. T. White, 2008 (Narrowbar swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium sp. - Not yet described (Philippine swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium sp. - Not yet described (Tiger swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium sp. - Not yet described (New Guinea swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium sp. - Not yet described (Dwarf balloon shark)
Cephaloscyllium sp. - Not yet described (Dwarf oriental swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium sp. - Not yet described (New Caledonia swellshark)
Cephaloscyllium sp. - Not yet described (Red Sea swellshark)

Cephalurus cephalus - Lollipop catshark

Figaro boardmani - (Whitley, 1928) (Australian sawtail catshark)
Figaro striatus - Gledhill, Last & W. T. White, 2008 (Northern sawtail catshark)

Galeus antillensis - S. Springer, 1979 (Antilles catshark)
Galeus arae - Nichols, 1927 (Roughtail catshark)
Galeus atlanticus - Vaillant, 1888 (Atlantic sawtail catshark)
Galeus cadenati - S. Springer, 1966 (Longfin sawtail catshark)
Galeus eastmani - D. S. Jordan & Snyder, 1904 (Gecko catshark)
Galeus gracilis - Compagno & Stevens, 1993 (Slender sawtail catshark)
Galeus longirostris - Tachikawa & Taniuchi, 1987 (Longnose sawtail catshark)
Galeus melastomus - Rafinesque, 1810 (Blackmouth catshark)
Galeus mincaronei - Soto, 2001 (Southern sawtail catshark)
Galeus murinus - Collett, 1904 (Mouse catshark)
Galeus nipponensis - Nakaya, 1975 (Broadfin sawtail catshark)
Galeus piperatus - S. Springer & M. H. Wagner, 1966 (Peppered catshark)
Galeus polli - Cadenat, 1959 (African sawtail catshark)
Galeus priapus - Séret & Last, 2008 (Phallic catshark)
Galeus sauteri - D. S. Jordan & R. E. Richardson, 1909 (Blacktip sawtail catshark)
Galeus schultzi - S. Springer, 1979 (Dwarf sawtail catshark)
Galeus springeri - Konstantinou & Cozzi, 1998 (Springer's sawtail catshark)

Halaelurus boesemani - S. Springer & D'Aubrey, 1972 (Speckled catshark)
Halaelurus buergeri - (J. P. Müller & Henle, 1838) (Blackspotted catshark)
Halaelurus lineatus - Bass, D'Aubrey & Kistnasamy, 1975 (Lined catshark)
Halaelurus maculosus - W. T. White, Last & Stevens, 2007 (Indonesian speckled catshark)
Halaelurus natalensis - (Regan, 1904) (Tiger catshark)
Halaelurus quagga - (Alcock, 1899) (Quagga catshark)
Halaelurus sellus - W. T. White, Last & Stevens, 2007 (Rusty catshark)

Haploblepharus edwardsii - (Schinz, 1822) Puffadder shyshark

Haploblepharus fuscus - (J. L. B. Smith, 1950) Brown shyshark

Haploblepharus kistnasamyi - (Human & Compagno, 2006) Natal shyshark

Haploblepharus pictus - (J. P. Müller & Henle, 1838) Dark shyshark

Holohalaelurus favus - Human, 2006 (Honeycomb Izak)
Holohalaelurus grennian - Human, 2006 (Grinning Izak)
Holohalaelurus melanostigma - (Norman, 1939) (Crying Izak)
Holohalaelurus punctatus - (Gilchrist, 1914) (White-spotted Izak)
Holohalaelurus regani - (Gilchrist, 1922) (Izak catshark)

Parmaturus albimarginatus - Séret & Last, 2007 (White-tip catshark)
Parmaturus albipenis - Séret & Last, 2007 (White-clasper catshark)
Parmaturus p. angelae - Soares, Carvalho, et al, 2019

Parmaturus bigus - Séret & Last, 2007 (Beige catshark)
Parmaturus campechiensis - S. Springer, 1979 (Campeche catshark)
Parmaturus lanatus - Séret & Last, 2007 (Velvet catshark)

Parmaturus macmillani - Hardy, 1985 (McMillan's cat shark)

Parmaturus melanobranchus - (W. L. Y. Chan, 1966) (Blackgill catshark)

Parmaturus pilosus - Garman, 1906 (Salamander shark)

Parmaturus xaniurus - (C. H. Gilbert, 1892) (Filetail catshark)
Parmaturus sp. - Not yet described (Roughback catshark)

Parmaturus sp. - Not yet described (Indonesian filetail catshark)

Parmaturus sp. - Not yet described (Gulf of Mexico filetail)

Pentanchus profundicolus - Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. 2011 (Onefin catshark)

Poroderma africanum - (J. F. Gmelin, 1789) (Striped catshark or Pyjama shark)
Poroderma pantherinum - (J. P. Müller & Henle, 1838) (Leopard catshark)

Schroederichthys bivius - (J. P. Müller & Henle, 1838) (Narrowmouthed catshark)
Schroederichthys chilensis - (Guichenot, 1848) (Redspotted catshark)
Schroederichthys maculatus - S. Springer, 1966 (Narrowtail catshark)
Schroederichthys saurisqualus - Soto, 2001 (Lizard catshark)
Schroederichthys tenuis - S. Springer, 1966 (Slender catshark)

Scyliorhinus boa - Goode & T. H. Bean, 1896 (Boa catshark)
Scyliorhinus cabofriensis - K. D. A. Soares, U. L. Gomes & M. R. de Carvalho, 2016
Scyliorhinus canicula - (Linnaeus, 1758) (Small-spotted catshark)
Scyliorhinus capensis - (J. P. Müller & Henle, 1838) (Yellowspotted catshark)
Scyliorhinus cervigoni - Maurin & M. Bonnet, 1970 (West African catshark)
Scyliorhinus comoroensis - L. J. V. Compagno, 1988 (Comoro catshark)

Scyliorhinus dumamelii - Garman 1913 Southern Small-spotted Catshark
Scyliorhinus garmani - (Fowler, 1934) (Brownspotted catshark)
Scyliorhinus haeckelii - (A. Miranda-Ribeiro, 1907) (Freckled catshark)
Scyliorhinus hesperius - S. Springer, 1966 (Whitesaddled catshark)
Scyliorhinus meadi - S. Springer, 1966 (Blotched catshark)
Scyliorhinus retifer - (Garman, 1881) (Chain catshark)
Scyliorhinus stellaris - (Linnaeus, 1758) (Nursehound)
Scyliorhinus tokubee - Shirai, S. Hagiwara & Nakaya, 1992 (Izu catshark)
Scyliorhinus torazame - (S. Tanaka (I), 1908) (Cloudy catshark)
Scyliorhinus torrei - Howell-Rivero, 1936 (Dwarf catshark)
Scyliorhinus ugoi - K. D. A. Soares, Gadig & U. L. Gomes, 2015 (Dark freckled catshark)


Family PROSCYLLIDAE - Finback Catsharks

Ctenacis fehlmanni - Harlequin catshark

Eridacnis barbouri - Cuban ribbontail catshark

Eridacnis radcliffei - Pygmy ribbontail catshark

Eridacnis sinuans - African ribbontail catshark

Gollum attentuatus - Slender smoothhound

Proscyllium habereri - Graceful catshark


Family PSEUDOTRIAKIDAE - False Catsharks

Pseudotriakis microdon - False catshark


Family LEPTOCHARIIDAE - Barbeled Houndshark

Leptocharias smithii - Barbeled houndshark


Family TRIAKIDAE - Houndsharks

Furgaleus macki - Whiskery shark

Galeorhinus galeus - Tope shark

Gogolia filewoodi - Sailback houndshark

Hemitriakis japanica - Japanese topeshark

Hemitriakis leucoperiptera - Whitefin topeshark

Hypogaleus hyugaensis - Blacktip topeshark

Iago garricki - Longnose houndshark

Iago omanensis - Bigeye houndshark

Mustelus albipinnis - Whitemargin Smoothhound (aka M.hacat)

Mustelus antarcticus - Gummy shark

Mustelus asterias - Starry smoothhound

Mustelus californicus - Grey smoothhound

Mustelus canis - Dusky smoothhound / Smooth Dogfish

Mustelus dorsalis - Sharpnose smoothhound

Mustelus fasciatus - Striped smoothhound

Mustelus griseus - Spotless smoothhound

Mustelus henlei - Brown smoothhound

Mustelus higmani - Smalleye smoothhound

Mustelus lenticulatus - Spotted estuary smoothhound or rig

Mustelus lunulatus - Sicklefin smoothhound

Mustelus manazo - Starspotted smoothhound

Mustelus mento - Speckled smoothhound

Mustelus mosis - Arabian, hardnose, or Moses smoothhound

Mustelus mustelus - Smoothhound

Mustelus norrisi - Narrowfin or Florida smoothhound

Mustelus palumbes - Whitespot smoothhound

Mustelus punctulatus - Blackspot smoothhound

Mustelus schmitti - Narrownose smoothhound

Mustelus sinusmexicanus - Gulf of Mexico smoothhound

Mustelus whitneyi - Humpback smoothhound

Scylliogaleus quecketti - Flapnose houndshark

Triakis acutipinna - Sharpfin houndshark

Triakis maculata - Spotted houndshark

Triakis megalopterus - Sharptooth houndshark or spotted gully shark

Triakis scyllium - Banded houndshark

Triakis semifasciata - Leopard houndshark


Family HEMIGALEIDAE - Weasel Sharks

Chaenogaleus macrostoma - Hooktooth shark

Hemigaleus microstoma - Sicklefin weasel shark

Hemipristis elongatus - Snaggletooth shark

Paragaleus leucolomatus - Whitetip weasel shark

Paragaleus pectoralis - Atlantic weasel shark

Paragaleus tengi - Straighttooth weasel shark


Family CARCHARHINIDAE - Requiem Sharks

Carcharhinus acronotus - Blacknose shark

Carcharhinus albimarginatus - Silvertip shark

Carcharhinus altimus - Bignose shark

Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides - Graceful shark

Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos - Grey reef shark

Carcharhinus amboinensis - Pigeye or Java shark

Carcharhinus borneensis - Borneo shark

Carcharhinus brachyurus - Copper shark or bronze whaler

Carcharhinus brevipinna - Spinner shark

Carcharhinus cautus - Nervous shark

Carcharhinus cerdale - Pacific smalltail shark

Carcharhinus dussumieri - Whitecheek shark

Carcharhinus falciformis - Silky shark

Carcharhinus fitzroyensis - Creek whaler

Carcharhinus galapagenisis - Galapagos shark

Carcharhinus hemiodon - Pondicherry shark

Carcharhinus isodon - Finetooth shark

Carcharhinus leucas - Bull or Zambezi shark

Carcharhinus limbatus - Blacktip shark

Carcharhinus longimanus - Oceanic whitetip shark

Carcharhinus macloti - Hardnose shark

Carcharhinus melanopterus - Blacktip reef shark

Carcharhinus obscurus - Dusky shark

Carcharhinus perezi - Caribbean reef shark

Carcharhinus plumbeus - Sandbar shark

Carcharhinus porosus - Smalltail shark

Carcharhinus sealei - Blackspot shark

Carcharhinus signatus - Night shark

Carcharhinus sorrah - Spottail shark

Carcharhinus wheeleri - Blacktail reef shark

Galeocerdo cuvier - Tiger shark

Glyphis gangeticus - Ganges shark

Glyphis glyphis - Speartooth shark

Isogomphodon oxyrhynchus - Daggernose shark

Lamiopsis temmincki - Broadfin shark

Loxodon macrorhinus - Sliteye shark

Nasolamia velox - Whitenose shark

Negraprion acutidens - Sharptooth lemon shark

Negraprion brevirostris - Lemon shark

Prionace glauca - Blue shark

Rhizoprionodon acutus - Milk shark

Rhizoprionodon lalandei - Brazilian sharpnose shark

Rhizoprionodon longurio - Pacific sharpnose shark

Rhizoprionodon oligolinx - Grey sharpnose shark

Rhizopriondon porosus - Carribean sharpnose shark

Rhizopriondon taylori - Australian sharpnose shark

Rhizopriondon terraenovae - Atlantic sharpnose shark

Scoliodon laticaudus - Spadenose shark

Triaenodon obesus - Whitetip reef shark


Family SPHYRNIDAE - Hammerhead Sharks

Eusphyra blochii - Winghead shark

Sphyrna corona - Mallethead shark

Sphyrna couardi - Whitefin hammerhead

Sphyrna lewini - Scalloped hammerhead

Sphyrna media - Scoophead shark

Sphyrna mokarran - Great hammerhead

Sphyrna tiburo - Bonnethead shark

Sphyrna tudes - Smalleye hammerhead 

Sphyrna zygaena - Smooth hammerhead

Sphyrna Sp.A - Cryptic Scalloped hammerhead






Order TORPEDINIFORMES - Electric rays


Family HYPNIDAE - Coffin Rays

Hypnos monopterygium - Australian numbfish or Coffin ray.


Family NARCINIDAE - Electric Rays

Benthobatis kreffti - Brazilian blind electric ray

Benthobatis marcida - blind torpedo (occurs below 200m depth)

Diplobatis colombiensis - Colombian electric ray

Diplobatis guamachensis - Brownband numbfish

Diplobatis ommata - Bulls-eye electric ray

Diplobatis pictus - Painted electric ray

Discopyge tschudii - Pacific Apron Ray

Discopyge castelloi - Atlantic apron ray. Possibly synonymous with D.tschudii

Heteronarce garmani - Natal electric ray

Narcine bancroftii - Lesser electric ray

Narcine brasiliensis - Brazilian electric ray

Narcine brevilabiata - (Offshore species found on continental tropical waters, known from a depth of 49 m).

Narcine brunnea - Brown numbfish (Continental waters)

Narcine entemedor - Giant electric ray

Narcine insolita - Madagascar numbfish

Narcine lasti - Western numbfish

Narcine leoparda - Leopard electric ray

Narcine lingula (found in continental waters both inshore and offshore).

Narcine nelsoni - Eastern numbfish

Narcine oculifera - Bigeye electric ray

Narcine ornata - Ornate numbfish

Narcine prodorsalis - (Continental waters both inshore and offshore. Known from a depth of 49m).

Narcine rierai - Slender electric ray

Narcine tasmaniensis - Tasmanian numbfish

Narcine timlei - Spotted numbfish (Continental waters, inshore and offshore).

Narcine vermiculatus - Vermiculate electric ray (Benthic on soft bottoms in protected coastal areas).

Narcine westraliensis - Banded numbfish


Family NARKIDAE - Sleeper Rays

Electrolux addisoni - Ornate sleeper-ray

Heteronarce bentuviai - Elat electric ray

Heteronarce garmani - Natal electric ray

Narke capensis - Onefin electric ray

Narke dipterygia - Numbray

Narke japonica - Japanese sleeper ray.

Temera hardwickii - Pari karas (Malay/Indonesian. Found inshore and offshore)

Typhlonarke aysoni - Blind electric ray

Typhlonarke tarakea - Oval electric ray


Family TORPEDINIDAE - Torpedo Rays

Tetronarce californica - Pacific electric ray
Tetronarce cowleyi - Cowley’s torpedo ray
Tetronarce fairchildi - New Zealand torpedo
Tetronarce formosa - Taiwan torpedo
Tetronarce macneilli - Shorttail torpedo
Tetronarce mackayana - West African torpedo ray
Tetronarce nobiliana - Atlantic torpedo
Tetronarce panthera - Panther electric ray
Tetronarce puelcha - Argentine torpedo
Tetronarce tokionis - Trapezoid torpedo
Torpedo adenensis - Aden Gulf torpedo
Torpedo alexandrinsis - Alexandrine torpedo
Torpedo andersoni - Florida torpedo
Torpedo bauchotae - Rosette torpedo
Torpedo fuscomaculata - Black-spotted torpedo
Torpedo marmorata - Marbled electric ray
Torpedo microdiscus - Smalldisk torpedo
Torpedo peruana - Peruvian torpedo
Torpedo semipelagica - Semipelagic torpedo
Torpedo sinuspersici - Variable torpedo
Torpedo suessii Steindachner, 1898
Torpedo torpedo - Common torpedo
Torpedo tremens - Chilean torpedo


Order MYLIOBATIFORMES - Stingrays, Eagle rays, Devil rays


Family AETOBATIDAE - Pelagic Eagle Rays

Aetobatus flagellum (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Longhead eagle ray

Aetobatus laticeps (Gill,1865) Pacific spotted eagle ray 

Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen, 1790) Whitespotted eagle ray

Aetobatus narutobiei (White, Furumitsu, Yamaguchi, 2013) Naru eagle ray

Aetobatus ocellatus - (Kuhl & van Hasselt, 1823) Spotted eagle ray


Family DASYATIDAE - Whiptail Stingrays

Bathytoshia brevicaudata (Hutton, 1875) Short-tail stingray

Bathytoshia centroura (Mitchill, 1815) Roughtail stingray

Bathytoshia lata (Garman, 1880) Brown stingray

Dasyatis chrysonota (Smith, 1828) Blue stingray

Brevitrygon heterura (Bleeker, 1852) Dwarf whipray

Brevitrygon imbricata (Bloch and Achneider, 1801) Bengal whipray

Brevitrygon javanensis (Last and White, 2013) Javan whipray

Brevitrygon walga (Muller and Henle, 1841) Scaly whipray

Dasyatis hypostigma (Santos & Carvalho, 2004) Groovebelly stingray

Dasyatis marmorata (Steindachner 1892) Marbled stingray

Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758) Common stingray

Dasyatis tortonesei Capapé, 1975Tortonese's stingray

Fluvitrygon kittipongi (Vidthayanon and Roberts, 2006) Roughback whipray

Fluvitrygon oxyrhynchus (Sauvage, 1878) Marbled whipray

Fluvitrygon signifer (Compagno & Roberts, 1982) White-edge freshwater whip ray

Fontitrygon colarensis (Santos, 2004) Colares stingray

Fontitrygon garouaensis (Stauch & Blanc, 1962) Smooth freshwater stingray

Fontitrygon geijskesi Boeseman, 1948Sharpsnout stingray

Fontitrygon margarita (Günther, 1870) Daisy stingray 

Fontitrygon margaritella (Compagno & Roberts, 1984) Pearl stingray

Fontitrygon ukpam (Smith, 1863) Thorny freshwater stingray

Hemitrygon akajei (Müller & Henle, 1841) Red stingray

Hemitrygon bennetti (Müller & Henle, 1841) Bennett's stingray

Hemitrygon fluviorum (Ogilby, 1908) Estuary stingray

Hemitrygon izuensis (Nishida & Nakaya, 1988) Izu stingray

Hemitrygon laevigata (Chu, 1960) Yantai stingray 

Hemitrygon laosensis (Roberts & Karnasuta, 1987) Mekong stingray

Hemitrygon longicauda (Last and White, 2013) Merauke Stingray

Hemitrygon navarrae (Steindachner, 1892) Oriental black stingray

Hemitrygon parvonigra (Last & White, 2008) Dwarf black stingray

Hemitrygon sinensis (Steindachner, 1892) Chinese stingray

Himantura australis (Last, White and Naylor, 2016) Australian whipray

Himantura leoparda (Last, 2008) Leopard Whipray

Himantura uarnak (Forsskål, 1775) Coach whipray 

Himantura undulata (Bleeker, 1852) Honeycomb whipray 

Hypanus americanus (Hildebrand & Schroeder, 1928) Southern stingray

Hypanus dipterurus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1880) Diamond stingray

Hypanus guttatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Longnose stingray 

Hypanus longa (Garman, 1880) Longtail stingray

Hypanus marianae (Gomes, Rosa & Gadig, 2000) Large-eye stingray

Hypanus rudis (Günther, 1870) Smalltooth stingray

Hypanus sabinus (Lesueur, 1824) Atlantic stingray

Hypanus say (Lesueur, 1817) Bluntnose stingray

Maculabatis ambigua (Last, Bogorodsky and Alpermann, 2016) Bakara's whipray

Maculabatis arabica (Manjaji-Matsumoto and Last, 2016) Pakistan whipray

Maculabatis astra (Last, Manjaji-Matsumoto and Pogonoski, 2008) Blackspotted whipray

Maculabatis bineeshi (Manjaji-Matsumoto and Last, 2016) Shorttail whipray

Maculabatis  gerrardi (Gray, 1851) Whitespotted whipray

Maculabatis macrura (Bleeker, 2008) Sharpnose whipray

Maculabatis pastinacoides (Bleeker, 1852) Round whip ray

Maculabatis randalli (Last, Manjaji, Matsumoto and Moore, 2012) Arabian banded stingray

Himantura toshi (Whitley, 1939) Brown whipray

Makararaja chindwiensis (Roberts, 2007) Chindwin cowtail ray

Megatrygon microps (Annandale, 1908) Smalleye stingray 

Neotrygon annotata (Last, 1987) Plain maskray

Neotrygon australiae (Last, White and Seret, 2016) Australian bluespotted maskray

Neotrygon caeruleopunctata (Last, White and Seret, 2016) Bluespotted maskray

Neotrygon kuhlii (Müller & Henle, 1841) Kuhl's maskray

Neotrygon leylandi (Last, 1987) Painted maskray

Neotrygon ningalooensis (Last, White and Puckridge, 2010) Ningaloo maskray

Neotrygon orientalis (Last, White and Seret, 2016) Oriental bluespotted maskray

Neotrygon picta (Last and White, 2008) Speckled maskray

Neotrygon trigonoides (Castelnau, 1873) Coral Sea maskray

Neotrygon varidens (Garman, 1885) Mahogony maskray

Pastinachus ater (Maclaay, 1883) Broad cowtail stingray

Pastinachus gracilicaudus (Last and Matsumoto, 2010) Narrowtail stingray

Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål, 1775) Cowtail stingray

Pastinachus solocirostris (Last, Manjaji & Yearsley, 2005) Roughnose stingray

Pastinachus stellurostris (Last, Fahmi and Naylor 2010) starrynose cowtail ray

Paleobatis bleekeri (Blyth, 1860) Bleeker's whipray

Paleobatis fai (Jordan & Seale, 1906) Pink whipray

Paleobatis hortlei (Last, Matsumoto and Kailola, 2006) Hortle's whipray

Paleobatis jenkinsii (Annandale, 1909) Jenkin's whipray 

Paleobatis uarnacoides (Bleeker, 1852) Whitenose whipray

Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte, 1832) Pelagic stingray

Taeniura lessoni (Last, White and Naylor) Oceania fantail ray

Taeniura lymma (Forsskål, 1775) Bluespotted fantail ray

Taeniurops grabatus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 1817) Round stingray

Taeniurops meyeni (Müller & Henle, 1841) Blotched fantail ray

Telatrygon acutirostra (Nishida & Nakaya, 1988) Sharpnose ray

Telatrygon biasa (Last, White and Naylor, 2016) Indonesian sharpnose ray

Telatrygon crozieri (Blyth, 1860) Indian sharpnose ray

Telatrygon zugei (Müller & Henle, 1841) Pale-edged stingray

Urogymnus acanthobothrium (Last, White and Kyne, 2016) Mumbararr whipray 

Urogymnus asperrimus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Porcupine ray

Urogymnus dalyensis (Last and Matsumoto, 2008) Freshwater whipray 

Urogymnus granulatus (Macleay, 1883) Mangrove whipray

Urogymnus lobistoma (Matsumoto and Last, 2006) Tubemouth whipray 

Urogymnus polylepis (Bleeker, 1852) Giant freshwater whipray 


Family GYMNURIDAE - Butterfly Rays

Gymnura altavela (Linnaeus, 1758) Spiny butterfly ray 

Gymnura australis (Ramsay & Ogilby, 1886) Australian butterfly ray 

Gymnura crebripunctata (Peters, 1869) Longsnout butterfly ray 

Gymnura japonica (Temminck & Schlegel, 1850) Japanese butterflyray 

Gymnura marmorata (Cooper, 1864) California butterfly ray 

Gymnura micrura (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Smooth butterfly ray 

Gymnura natalensis (Gilchrist & Thompson, 1911) Backwater butterfly ray 

Gymnura poecilura (Shaw, 1804) Longtail butterfly ray

Gymnure tentaculata (Müller & Henle, 1841) Tentacle butterfly ray 

Gymnura zonura (Bleeker, 1852) Zonetail butterfly ray


Family HEXATRYGONIDAE - Sixgill Stingrays

Hexatrygon bickelli (Heemstra & Smith, 1980) Sixgill stingray 


Family MYLIOBATIDAE - Bat Rays and Eagle Rays

Aetomylaeus asperrimus (Gillbert, 1898) Roughskin eagle ray

Aetomylaeus bovinus (Geoffroy St Hilaire, 1817) Duckbill eagle ray

Aetomylaeus caeruleofasciatus (White, Last and Baje, 2015) Bluebanded eagle ray

Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray, 1834) Mottled eagle ray 

Aetomylaeus milvus (Müller & Henle, 1841) Ocellate eagle ray

Aetomylaeus nichofii (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Banded eagle ray 

Aetomylaeus vespertilio (Bleeker, 1852) Ornate eagle ray 

Myliobatis aquila (Linnaeus, 1758) Common eagle ray 

Myliobatis californica Gill, 1865 Bat ray 

Myliobatis chilensis Philippi, 1893Chilean eagle ray 

Myliobatis freminvillii Lesueur, 1824Bullnose eagle ray 

Myliobatis goodei Garman, 1885Southern eagle ray 

Myliobatis hamlyni Ogilby, 1911Purple eagle ray 

Myliobatis longirostris Applegate & Fitch, 1964Snouted eagle ray 

Myliobatis peruvianus (Garman, 1913) Peruvian eagle ray

Myliobatis ridens (Ruocco et al, 2012) Shortnose eagle ray

Myliobatis tenuicaudatus (Hector, 1877) New Zealand eagle ray 

Myliobatis tobijei Bleeker, 1854Japanese eagle ray 


Family MOBULIDAE - Devil Rays, Mobula Rays and Manta Rays

Manta alfredi - Reef Manta Ray

Manta birostris - Oceanic manta 

Mobula hypostoma - Lesser devil ray 

Mobula kuhlii (Müller & Henle, 1841) Shortfin devil ray 

Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre, 1788) Devil fish 

Mobula munkiana - Munk's devil ray 

Mobula tarapacana (Philippi, 1893) Chilean devil ray 

Mobula thurstoni - Smoothtail mobula/Bentfin devil ray)


Family PLESIOBATIDAE - Giant Stingarees

Plesiobatis daviesi (Wallace, 1967) Giant Stingaree


Family POTAMOTRYGONIDAE - Freshwater/River Stingrays

Heliotrygon gomesi, n. sp. Carvalho and Lovejoy 2013

Heliotrygon rosai,n.sp. Carvalho and Lovejoy 2013

Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle, 1841) Discus ray

Plesiotrygon iwamae Rosa, Castello &Thorson, 1987 Long-tailed river stingray

Plesiotrygon nana Carvalho & Ragno, 2011 Black-tailed antenna ray 

Potamotrygon amandae Loboda & M. R. de Carvalho, 2013

Potamotrygon boesemani Rosa, M. R. de Carvalho & Almeida Wanderley, 2008 Emperor ray

Potamotrygon brachyura (Günther, 1880) Short-tailed river stingray 

Potamotrygon castexi Castello & Yagolkowski, 1969 Vermiculate river stingray 

Potamotrygon constellata (Vaillant, 1880) Thorny river stingray 

Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel, 1963 Largespot river stingray 

Potamotrygon henlei (Castelnau, 1855) Bigtooth river stingray 

Potamotrygon humerosa Garman, 1913

Potamotrygon hystrix (Müller & Henle, 1834) Porcupine river stingray 

Potamotrygon leopoldi Castex & Castello, 1970 White-blotched river stingray 

Potamotrygon limai (Fontenelle, Silva and Carvalho)

Potamotrygon magdalenae (Valenciennes, 1865) Magdalena river stingray

Potamotrygon marquesi (Da Silva, 2019)

Potamotrygon marinae Deynat, 2006 

Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841) Ocellate river stingray 

Potamotrygon ocellata (Engelhardt, 1912) Red-blotched river stingray 

Potamotrygon orbignyi (Castelnau, 1855) Smooth back river stingray 

Potamotrygon pantanensis Loboda & M. R. de Carvalho, 2013

Potamotrygon schroederi Fernández-Yépez, 1957 Rosette river stingray 

Potamotrygon schuehmacheri Castex, 1964 

Potamotrygon scobina Garman, 1913 Raspy river stingray 

Potamotrygon signata Garman, 1913 Parnaiba river stingray

Potamotrygon tatianae J. P. C. B. da Silva & M. R. de Carvalho, 2011

Potamotrygon tigrina M. R. de Carvalho, Sabaj Pérez & Lovejoy, 2011 Tiger ray 

Potamotrygon yepezi Castex & Castello, 1970 Maracaibo river stingray

Styracura pacifica (Beebe & Tee-Van, 1941) Pacific chupare stingray 

Styracura schmardae (Werner, 1904) Atlantic chupare stingray  


Family RHINOPTERIDAE - Cownose Rays

Rhinoptera adspersaMüller & Henle, 1841Rough cownose ray 

Rhinoptera bonasus(Mitchill, 1815)Atlantic Cownose ray 

Rhinoptera brasiliensisMüller, 1836Ticon cownose ray 

Rhinoptera javanicaMüller & Henle, 1841Javanese cownose ray 

Rhinoptera jayakariBoulenger, 1895Oman cownose ray 

Rhinoptera marginata(Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 1817)Lusitanian cownose ray 

Rhinoptera neglectaOgilby, 1912Australian cownose ray 

Rhinoptera steindachneriEvermann & Jenkins, 1891Pacific cownose ray


Family UROLOPHIDAE - Indo-Pacific round stingrays (stingarees)
Spinilophus armatus (Muller & Henle, 1841) New Ireland stingaree

Trygonoptera galba (Last and Yearsley, 2008) Yellow shovelnose stingaree

Trygonoptera imitata ((Yearsley, Last and Goman, 2008) Eastern shovenose stingaree

Trygonoptera mucosa (Whitley, 1939) Western shovelnose stingaree
Trygonoptera ovalis (Last & Gomon, 1987) Striped stingaree
Trygonoptera personata (Last & Gomon, 1987) Masked stingaree
Trygonoptera testacea (Muller & Henle, 1841) Common stingaree
Urolophus aurantiacus (Muller & Henle, 1841) Sepia stingray
Urolophus bucculentus (Macleay, 1884) Sandyback stingaree
Urolophus circularis (McKay, 1966) Circular stingaree
Urolophus cruciatus (Lacep�de, 1804) Crossback stingaree
Urolophus deforgesi (Seret and Last, 2003) Chesterfield stingaree

Urolophus expansus (McCulloch, 1916) Wide stingaree
Urolophus flavomosaicus (Last & Gomon, 1987) Patchwork stingaree
Urolophus gigas (Scott, 1954) Spotted stingaree
Urolophus javanicus (Martens, 1864) Java stingaree
Urolophus kaianus (Gunther, 1880) Kai stingaree
Urolophus kapalensis (Yearsley and Last, 2006) Kapala stingaree
Urolophus lobatus (McKay, 1966) Lobed stingaree
Urolophus mitosis (Last & Gomon, 1987) Mitotic stingaree
Urolophus neocaledoniensis (seret and Last, 2003) New Caledonian Stingaree

Urolophus orarius (Last & Gomon, 1987) Coastal stingaree
Urolophus papillio (Seret and Last, 2003) Butterfly stingaree

Urolophus paucimaculatus (Dixon, 1969) Sparsely-spotted stingaree
Urolophus piperatus (Seret and Last, 2003) Coral Sea stingaree

Urolophus sufflavus (Whitley, 1929) Yellowback stingaree
Urolophus viridis (McCulloch, 1916) Greenback stingaree
Urolophus westraliensis (Last & Gomon, 1987) Brown stingaree


Family UROTRYGONIDAE - Pan-American round stingrays
Urobatis concentricus (Osburn & Nichols, 1916) Spot-on-spot round ray / Bullseye Stingray
Urobatis halleri (Cooper, 1863) Haller's round stingray
Urobatis jamaicensis (Cuvier, 1816) Yellow stingray
Urobatis maculatus (Garman, 1913) Cortez round stingray
Urobatis pardalis (Luis Fernando Del Moral-Flores 2015) Leopard round stingray
Urobatis tumbesensis (Chirichigno F. & McEachran, 1979) Tumbes round stingray
Urotrygon aspidura (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) Spiny-tail round ray
Urotrygon chilensis (G�nther, 1872) Chilean round ray
Urotrygon cimar (L�pez S. & Bussing, 1998)
Urotrygon microphthalmum (Delsman, 1941) Smalleyed round stingray
Urotrygon munda (Gill, 1863) Munda round ray
Urotrygon nana (Miyake & McEachran, 1988) Dwarf round ray
Urotrygon reticulata (Miyake & McEachran, 1988) Reticulate round ray
Urotrygon rogersi (Jordan & Starks, 1895) Roger's round ray 
Urotrygon simulatrix (Miyake & McEachran, 1988) Fake round ray
Urotrygon venezuelae (Schultz, 1949) Venezuela round stingray


Order RHINOBATIFORMES - Guitarfish 


Family PLATYRHINIDAE - Thornback Rays

Platyrhina hyugaensis (Iwatsuki, Miyamoto and Nakaya, 2011) Hyuga Fanray

Platyrhina psomadakisi (white and Last, 2016) Indian Fanray

Platyrhina sinensis (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Chinese Fanray

Platyrhina tangi (Iwatsuki, Zhang and Nakaya, 2011) Yellowspotted Fanray

Platyrhinoidis triseriata Jordan & Gilbert, 1880 Thornback guitarfish


Family RHINOBATIDAE - Guitarfishes

Aptychotrema bougainvillii Müller & Henle, 1841 Short-snouted shovelnose ray

Aptychotrema rostrata Shaw & Nodder, 1794 East Australian shovelnose ray

Aptychotrema vincentiana Haacke, 1885 Western shovelnose ray 

Glaucostegus granulatus Cuvier, 1829 Sharpnose guitarfish 

Glaucostegus halavi Forsskål, 1775 Halavi's guitarfish 

Glaucostegus typus Bennett, 1830 Giant shovelnose ray

Rhinobatos albomaculatus Norman, 1930 White-spotted guitarfish

Rhinobatos annandalei Norman, 1926 Annandale's guitarfish

Rhinobatos annulatus Müller & Henle, 1841 Lesser sandshark

Rhinobatos blochii Müller & Henle, 1841 Bluntnose guitarfish

Rhinobatos cemiculus Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817 Blackchin guitarfish 

Rhinobatos formosensis Norman, 1926 Taiwan guitarfish 

Rhinobatos glaucostigma Jordan & Gilbert, 1883 Speckled guitarfish 

Rhinobatos holcorhynchus Norman, 1922 Slender guitarfish 

Rhinobatos horkelii Müller & Henle, 1841 Brazilian guitarfish 

Rhinobatos hynnicephalus Richardson, 1846 Angel fish 

Rhinobatos irvineiNorman 1931 Spineback guitarfish 

Rhinobatos lentiginosus Garman, 1880 Atlantic guitarfish 

Rhinobatos leucorhynchus Günther, 1867 Whitesnout guitarfish 

Rhinobatos leucospilus Norman, 1926 Grayspottted guitarfish 

Rhinobatos lionotus Norman, 1926 Smoothback guitarfish 

Rhinobatos microphthalmus Teng, 1959 Smalleyed guitarfish 

Rhinobatos obtusus Müller & Henle, 1841 Widenose guitarfish 

Rhinobatos ocellatus Norman, 1926 Speckled guitarfish

Rhinobatos percellens Walbaum, 1792 Chola guitarfish 

Rhinobatos petiti Chabanaud, 1929 Madagascar guitarfish 

Rhinobatos planiceps Garman, 1880 Pacific guitarfish 

Rhinobatos prahli Acero P. & Franke, 1995 Gorgona guitarfish 

Rhinobatos productus Ayres, 1854 Shovelnose guitarfish 

Rhinobatos punctifer Compagno & Randall, 1987 Spotted guitarfish 

Rhinobatos rhinobatos Linnaeus, 1758 Common guitarfish 

Rhinobatos salalah Randall & Compagno, 1995 Salalah guitarfish 

Rhinobatos schlegelii Müller & Henle, 1841 Yellow guitarfish 

Rhinobatos spinosus Günther, 1870 Spiny guitarfish 

Rhinobatos thouin Anonymous, 1798 Clubnose guitarfish 

Rhinobatos variegatus Nair & Lal Mohan, 1973 Stripenose guitarfish 

Rhinobatos zanzibarensis Norman, 1926 Zanzibar guitarfish 

Tarsistes philippii Jordan, 1919 No common name. Known from one dried head from Chile

Trygonorrhina fasciata Müller & Henle, 1841 Southern fiddler 

Trygonorrhina melaleuca Scott, 1954 Magpie fiddler ray 

Zanobatus schoenleinii Müller & Henle, 1841 Striped panray 

Zapteryx brevirostris Müller & Henle, 1841 Lesser guitarfish 

Zapteryx exasperata Jordan & Gilbert, 1880 Banded guitarfish 

Zapteryx xyster Jordan & Evermann, 1896


Family RHYNCHOBATIDAE - Sharkfin Guitarfishes

Rhina ancylostoma  Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Bowmouth Guitarfish

Rhynchobatus australiae Whitley, 1939 Whitespotted wedgefish

Rhynchobatus djiddensis Forsskål, 1775 Giant guitarfish 

Rhynchobatus immaculatus  PETER R. LAST1, HSUAN-CHING HO2,3,* & ROU-RONG CHEN3 2013

Rhynchobatus laevis Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Smooth nose wedgefish 

Rhynchobatus luebberti Ehrenbaum, 1915 African wedgefish


Order PRISTIFORMES - Sawfishes


Family PRISTIDAE - Sawfishes

Anoxypristis cuspidata - Knifetooth sawfish, Narrow Sawfish

Pristis clavata - Dwarf sawfish

Pristis microdon - Largetooth sawfish, Freshwater Sawfish, Broadbill Sawfish

Pristis pectinata - Smalltooth sawfish

Pristis perotteti - Large-tooth sawfish

Pristis pristis - Common sawfish

Pristis zijsron - Longcomb sawfish, Green Sawfish


Order RAJIFORMES - Skates


Family RAJIDAE - Skates

Amblyraja badia (Garman, 1899)Broad skate 

Amblyraja doellojuradoi (Pozzi, 1935)Southern thorny skate 

Amblyraja frerichsi (Krefft, 1968)Thickbody skate 

Amblyraja georgiana (Norman, 1938)Antarctic starry skate 

Amblyraja hyperborea (Collett, 1879)Arctic skate 

Amblyraja jenseni (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950)Jensen's skate 

Amblyraja radiata (Donovan, 1808)Thorny skate

Amblyraja reversa (Lloyd, 1906)Reversed skate 

Amblyraja robertsi (Hulley, 1970)Bigmouth skate 

Amblyraja taaf (Meissner, 1987)Whiteleg skate 

Arhynchobatis asperrimus Waite, 1909Longtail skate 

Atlantoraja castelnaui (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1907)Spotback skate 

Atlantoraja cyclophora (Regan, 1903)Eyespot skate 

Atlantoraja platana (Günther, 1880)La Plata skate 

athyraja abyssicola (Gilbert, 1896)Deepsea skate 

Bathyraja aguja (Kendall & Radcliffe, 1912)Aguja skate 

Bathyraja albomaculata (Norman, 1937)White-dotted skate 

Bathyraja aleutica (Gilbert, 1896)Aleutian skate 

Bathyraja andriashevi Dolganov, 1985Little-eyed skate 

Bathyraja bergi Dolganov, 1985Bottom skate 

Bathyraja brachyurops (Fowler, 1910)Broadnose skate 

Bathyraja caeluronigricans Ishiyama & Ishihara, 1977Purple-black skate 

Bathyraja diplotaenia (Ishiyama, 1952)Dusky-pink skate 

Bathyraja eatonii (Günther, 1876)Eaton's skate 

Bathyraja fedorovi Dolganov, 1985Cinnamon skate 

Bathyraja griseocauda (Norman, 1937)Graytail skate 

Bathyraja hesperafricana Stehmann, 1995West African skate 

Bathyraja hubbsi Ishihara & Ishiyama, 1985 

Bathyraja interrupta (Gill & Townsend, 1897)Sandpaper skate 

Bathyraja irrasa Hureau & Ozouf-Costaz, 1980Kerguelen sandpaper skate 

Bathyraja isotrachys (Günther, 1877)Raspback skate 

Bathyraja leucomelanos (Samuel Paco Iglésias) New Caledonia Skate?

Bathyraja lindbergi Ishiyama & Ishihara, 1977Commander skate 

Bathyraja longicauda (de Buen, 1959)Slimtail skate 

Bathyraja maccaini Springer, 1971McCain's skate 

Bathyraja macloviana (Norman, 1937)Patagonian skate 

Bathyraja maculata Ishiyama & Ishihara, 1977White-blotched skate 

Bathyraja magellanica (Philippi, 1902)Magellan skate 

Bathyraja matsubarai (Ishiyama, 1952)Dusky-purple skate 

Bathyraja meridionalis Stehmann, 1987Dark-belly skate 

Bathyraja minispinosa Ishiyama & Ishihara, 1977Smallthorn skate 

Bathyraja multispinis (Norman, 1937)Multispine skate 

Bathyraja murrayi (Günther, 1880)Murray's skate 

Bathyraja notoroensis Ishiyama & Ishihara, 1977Notoro skate 

Bathyraja pallida (Forster, 1967)Pale ray 

Bathyraja papilionifera Stehmann, 1985Butterfly skate 

Bathyraja parmifera (Bean, 1881)Alaska skate 

Bathyraja peruana McEachran & Miyake, 1984Peruvian skate 

Bathyraja pseudoisotrachys Ishihara & Ishiyama, 1985 

Bathyraja richardsoni (Garrick, 1961)Richardson's ray 

Bathyraja scaphiops (Norman, 1937)Cuphead skate 

Bathyraja schroederi (Krefft, 1968)Whitemouth skate 

Bathyraja shuntovi Dolganov, 1985Narrownose skate 

Bathyraja simoterus Ishiyama, 1967Hokkaido skate 

Bathyraja smirnovi (Soldatov & Pavlenko, 1915)Golden skate 

Bathyraja smithii (Müller & Henle, 1841)African softnose skate 

Bathyraja spinicauda (Jensen, 1914)Spinetail ray 

Bathyraja spinosissima (Beebe & Tee-Van, 1941)White skate 

Bathyraja trachouros (Ishiyama, 1958)Eremo skate 

Bathyraja trachura (Gilbert, 1892)Roughtail skate 

Bathyraja tzinovskii Dolganov, 1985Creamback skate 

Bathyraja violacea (Suvorov, 1935)Okhotsk skate 

Breviraja claramaculata McEachran & Matheson, 1985Brightspot skate 

Breviraja colesi Bigelow & Schroeder, 1948Lightnose skate 

Breviraja marklei McEachran & Miyake, 1987Nova Scotia skate 

Breviraja mouldi McEachran & Matheson, 1995Blacknose skate 

Breviraja nigriventralis McEachran & Matheson, 1985Blackbelly skate 

Breviraja spinosa Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950Spinose skate 

Cruriraja andamanica (Lloyd, 1909)Andaman leg skate 

Cruriraja atlantis Bigelow & Schroeder, 1948Atlantic leg skate 

Cruriraja cadenati Bigelow & Schroeder, 1962Broadfoot leg skate 

Cruriraja durbanensis (von Bonde & Swart, 1923)Smooth nose leg skate 

Cruriraja parcomaculata (von Bonde & Swart, 1923)Roughnose legskate 

Cruriraja poeyi Bigelow & Schroeder, 1948Cuban leg skate 

Cruriraja rugosa Bigelow & Schroeder, 1958Rough leg skate 

Cruriraja triangularis Smith, 1964Triangular legskate 

Dactylobatus armatus Bean & Weed, 1909Skilletskate 

Dactylobatus clarkii (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1958)Hookskate

Dipturus amphispinus (Last & Moonyeen, 2013) Philippine longsnout skate.

Dipturus batis (Linnaeus, 1758)Blue skate 

Dipturus bullisi (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1962)Bullis skate 

Dipturus campbelli (Wallace, 1967)Blackspot skate 

Dipturus chilensis (Guichenot, 1848)Yellownose skate 

Dipturus crosnieri (Séret, 1989)Madagascar skate 

Dipturus doutrei (Cadenat, 1960)Violet skate 

Dipturus ecuadoriensis (Beebe & Tee-Van, 1941)Ecuador skate 

Dipturus garricki (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1958)San Blas skate 

Dipturus gigas (Ishiyama, 1958)Giant skate 

Dipturus gudgeri (Whitley, 1940)Bight skate 

Dipturus innominatus (Garrick & Paul, 1974)New Zealand smooth skate 

Dipturus johannisdavisi (Alcock, 1899)Travancore skate 

Dipturus kwangtungensis (Chu, 1960)Kwangtung skate 

Dipturus laevis (Mitchill, 1818)Barndoor skate 

Dipturus lanceorostratus (Wallace, 1967)Rattail skate 

Dipturus leptocaudus (Krefft & Stehmann, 1975)Thintail skate 

Dipturus linteus (Fries, 1838)Sailray 

Dipturus macrocaudus (Ishiyama, 1955)Bigtail skate 

Dipturus mennii Gomes & Paragó, 2001 

Dipturus nasutus (Müller & Henle, 1841)New Zealand rough skate 

Dipturus nidarosiensis (Storm, 1881)Norwegian skate 

Dipturus olseni (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1951)Spreadfin skate 

Dipturus oregoni (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1958)Hooktail skate 

Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus, 1758)Longnosed skate 

Dipturus pullopunctatus (Smith, 1964)Slime skate 

Dipturus springeri (Wallace, 1967)Roughbelly skate 

Dipturus stenorhynchus (Wallace, 1967)Prow-nose skate 

Dipturus teevani (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1951)Prickly brown ray 

Dipturus tengu (Jordan & Fowler, 1903)Acutenose skate 

Dipturus trachydermus (Krefft & Stehmann, 1975) 

Fenestraja atripinna (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950)Blackfin pygmy skate 

Fenestraja cubensis (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950)Cuban pygmy skate 

Fenestraja ishiyamai (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1962)Plain pygmy skate 

Fenestraja maceachrani (Séret, 1989)Madagascar pygmy skate 

Fenestraja mamillidens (Alcock, 1889)Prickly skate 

Fenestraja plutonia (Garman, 1881)Pluto skate 

Fenestraja sibogae (Weber, 1913)Siboga skate 

Fenestraja sinusmexicanus (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950)Gulf of Mexico pygmy skate 

Gurgesiella atlantica (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1962)Atlantic pygmy skate 

Gurgesiella dorsalifera McEachran & Compagno, 1980Onefin skate 

Gurgesiella furvescensde Buen, 1959Dusky finless skate 

Irolita waitii (McCulloch, 1911)Southern round skate 

Leucoraja circularis (Couch, 1838) Sandy ray 

Leucoraja compagnoi (Stehmann, 1995) Tigertail skate 

Leucoraja erinacea (Mitchill, 1825) Little skate 

Leucoraja fullonica (Linnaeus, 1758) Shagreen ray 

Leucoraja garmani (Whitley, 1939) Freckled skate 

Leucoraja lentiginosa (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1951) Speckled skate 

Leucoraja leucosticta (Stehmann, 1971) Whitedappled skate 

Leucoraja melitensis (Clark, 1926) Maltese ray 

Leucoraja naevus (Müller & Henle, 1841) Cuckoo ray 

Leucoraja occelata (Mitchill, 1815) Winter skate 

Leucoraja wallacei (Hulley, 1970) Yellow spotted skate 

Leucoraja yucatanensis (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950) Yucatan skate 

Malacoraja kreffti (Stehmann, 1977) Krefft's ray 

Malacoraja senta (Garman, 1885) Smooth skate 

Malacoraja spinacidermis (Barnard, 1923) Roughskin skate 

Neoraja africana (Stehmann & Seret, 1983) West African pygmy skate 

Neoraja caerulea (Stehmann, 1976) Blue ray 

Neoraja carolinensis McEachran & Stehmann, 1984Carolina pygmy skate 

Neoraja stehmanni (Hulley, 1972)African pygmy skate 

Notoraja alisae (Bernard Séret and Peter R. Last 2012)

Notoraja asperula (Garrick & Paul, 1974)Prickly deepsea skate 

Notoraja fijiensis (Bernard Séret and Peter R. Last 2012)

Notoraja inusitata (Bernard Séret and Peter R. Last 2012)

Notoraja laxipella (Yearsley & Last, 1992)Eastern looseskin skate

Notoraja longiventralis (Bernard Séret and Peter R. Last 2012) 

Notoraja ochroderma McEachran & Last, 1994Pale skate 

Notoraja spinifera (Garrick & Paul, 1974)Spiny deepsea skate 

Notoraja subtilispinosa Stehmann, 1989Velvet skate 

Notoraja tobitukai (Hiyama, 1940)Leadhued skate 

Okamejei acutispina (Ishiyama, 1958)Sharpspine skate 

Okamejei australis (Macleay, 1884)Sydney skate 

Okamejei boesemani (Ishihara, 1987)Boeseman's skate 

Okamejei cerva (Whitley, 1939)White-spotted skate 

Okamejei heemstrai (McEachran & Fechhelm, 1982)East African skate 

Okamejei hollandi (Jordan & Richardson, 1909)Yellow-spotted skate 

Okamejei kenojei (Müller & Henle, 1841)Ocellate spot skate 

Okamejei lemprieri (Richardson, 1845)Australian thornback skate 

Okamejei meerdervoortii (Bleeker, 1860)Bigeye skate 

Okamejei pita (Fricke & Al-Hassan, 1995)Pita skate 

Okamejei powelli (Alcock, 1898)Indian ringed skate 

Okamejei schmidti (Ishiyama, 1958)Browneye skate 

Pavoraja alleni McEachran & Fechhelm, 1982Allens skate 

Pavoraja nitida (Günther, 1880)Peacock skate 

Psammobatis bergiMarini, 1932Blotched sand skate 

Psammobatis extenta (Garman, 1913)Zipper sand skate 

Psammobatis lentiginosa McEachran, 1983Freckled sand skate 

Psammobatis normani McEachran, 1983Shortfin sand skate 

Psammobatis parvacauda McEachran, 1983Smalltail sand skate 

Psammobatis rudis Günther, 1870Smallthorn sand skate 

Psammobatis rutrum Jordan, 1891Spade sand skate 

Psammobatis scobina (Philippi, 1857)Raspthorn sand skate 

Pseudoraja fischeri Bigelow & Schroeder, 1954Fanfin skate 

Raja ackleyi Garman, 1881Ocellate skate 

Raja africana Capapé, 1977African ray 

Raja asterias Delaroche, 1809Starry ray 

Raja bahamensis Bigelow & Schroeder, 1965Bahama skate 

Raja binoculata Girard, 1855 Big skate 

Raja brachyura Lafont, 1873Blonde ray 

Raja cervigoni Bigelow & Schroeder, 1964Finspot ray 

Raja clavata Linnaeus, 1758 Thornback ray 

Raja cortezensis McEachran & Miyake, 1988Cortez' ray 

Raja eglanteria Bosc, 1800 Clearnose skate 

Raja equatorialis Jordan & Bollman, 1890Ecuatorial ray 

Raja flavirostris Philippi, 1893 

Raja herwigi Krefft, 1965Cape Verde skate 

Raja inornata Jordan & Gilbert, 1881California ray 

Raja koreana Jeong & Nakabo, 1997Korean skate 

Raja maderensis Lowe, 1838Madeiran ray 

Raja microocellata Montagu, 1818Small-eyed ray 

Raja miraletus Linnaeus, 1758Brown ray 

Raja montagui Fowler, 1910Spotted ray 

Raja polyommata Ogilby, 1910Argus skate 

Raja polystigma Regan, 1923Speckled ray 

Raja pulchra Liu, 1932Mottled skate 

Raja radula Delaroche, 1809Rough ray 

Raja rhina Jordan & Gilbert, 1880 Longnose skate 

Raja rondeleti Bougis, 1959Rondelet's ray 

Raja rouxi Capapé, 1977 

Raja stellulata Jordan & Gilbert, 1880 Starry skate 

Raja straeleni Poll, 1951Biscuit skate 

Raja texana Chandler, 1921Roundel skate 

Raja undulata Lacepède, 1802Undulate ray 

Raja velezi Chirichigno F., 1973 Velez ray 

Raja whitleyi Iredale, 1938Wedgenose skate 

Rajella annandalei (Weber, 1913)Annandale's skate 

Rajella barnardi (Norman, 1935)Bigthorn skate 

Rajella bathyphila (Holt & Byrne, 1908)Deepwater ray 

Rajella bigelowi (Stehmann, 1978)Bigelow's ray 

Rajella caudaspinosa (von Bonde & Swart, 1923)Munchkin skate 

Rajella dissimilis (Hulley, 1970)Ghost skate 

Rajella eisenhardti Long & McCosker, 1999 

Rajella fuliginea (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1954)Sooty skate 

Rajella fyllae (Lütken, 1887)Round ray 

Rajella kukujevi (Dolganov, 1985)Mid-Atlantic skate 

Rajella leopardus (von Bonde & Swart, 1923)Leopard skate 

Rajella nigerrima (de Buen, 1960)Blackish skate 

Rajella purpuriventralis (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1962)Purplebelly skate 

Rajella ravidula (Hulley, 1970)Smoothback skate 

Rajella sadowskii (Krefft & Stehmann, 1974)Brazilian skate 

Rhinoraja kujiensis (Tanaka, 1916)Dapple-bellied softnose skate

Rhinoraja longi Raschi & McEachran, 1991Aleutian dotted skate 

Rhinoraja longicauda Ishiyama, 1952White-bellied softnose skate 

Rhinoraja obtusa (Gill & Townsend, 1897)Blunt skate 

Rhinoraja odai Ishiyama, 1958Oda's skate 

Rhinoraja taranetzi Dolganov, 1985Mud skate 

Rioraja agassizii (Müller & Henle, 1841)Rio skate 

Rostroraja alba (Lacepède, 1803)Bottlenosed skate 

Sinobatis kotlyari - MATTHIAS F. W. STEHMANN, SIMON WEIGMANN 2016

Sympterygia acuta Garman, 1877Bignose fanskate 

Sympterygia bonapartii Müller & Henle, 1841Smallnose fanskate 

Sympterygia brevicaudata (Cope, 1877)Shorttail fanskate 

Sympterygia lima (Poeppig, 1835)Filetail fanskate 






Order CHIMAERIFORMES - Chimaeras


Family CALLORHINCHIDAE - Plownose Chimaeras

Callorhinchus callorynchus (elephantfish)

Callorhinchus capensis (elephantfish)

Callorhinchus milii (elephantfish) Occurs on continental shelves of cool temperate areas of Australia and New Zealand to depths of at least 200 m. Migrates into large estuaries and inshore bays in spring to breed.


Family CHIMAERIDAE - Shortnose Chimaeras

Chimaera argiloba - Last, W. T. White & Pogonoski, 2008 (Whitefin chimaera)

Chimaera bahamaensis - Kemper, Ebert, Didier & Compagno, 2010 (Bahamas ghostshark)

Chimaera cubana - Howell-Rivero, 1936 (Cuban chimaera)

Chimaera fulva - Didier, Last & W. T. White, 2008 (Southern chimaera)

Chimaera jordaniS. Tanaka (I), 1905 (Jordan's chimaera)

Chimaera lignaria - Didier, 2002 (Carpenter's chimaera)

Chimaera macrospinaDidier, Last & W. T. White, 2008 (Longspine chimaera)

Chimaera monstrosaLinnaeus, 1758 (Rabbitfish)

Chimaera notafricana - Kemper, Ebert, Compagno & Didier, 2010 (Cape chimaera)

Chimaera obscura - Didier, Last & W. T. White, 2008 (Shortspine chimaera)

Chimaera owstoni - S. Tanaka (I), 1905 (Owston's chimaera)

Chimaera panthera - Didier, 1998 (Leopard chimaera)

Chimaera phantasma - D. S. Jordan & Snyder, 1900 (Silver chimaera)

Chimaera cf. sp. - E Last & Stevens, 1994; White et al. 2006 (Lombok chimaera)

Hydrolagus affinis - (Brito Capello, 1868) (Small-eyed rabbitfish)

Hydrolagus africanus - (Gilchrist, 1922) (African chimaera)Hydrolagus alberti Bigelow & Schroeder, 1951 (Gulf chimaera)

Hydrolagus alphus - Quaranta, Didier, Long & Ebert, 2006

Hydrolagus barbouri - (Garman, 1908) (Ninespot chimaera)

Hydrolagus bemisi - Didier, 2002 (Pale ghost shark)

Hydrolagus colliei - (Lay & E. T. Bennett, 1839) (Spotted ratfish)

Hydrolagus deani - (H. M. Smith & Radcliffe, 1912) (Philippine chimaera)

Hydrolagus eidolon - (D. S. Jordan & C. L. Hubbs, 1925)

Hydrolagus homonycteris - Didier, 2008 (Black ghostshark)

Hydrolagus lemures - (Whitley, 1939) (Bight ghostshark)

Hydrolagus lusitanicus - T. MouraI. M. R. FigueiredoBordalo-Machado, C. Almeida & Gordo, 2005 (Portuguese rabbitfish)

Hydrolagus macrophthalmus - F. de Buen, 1959 (Bigeye chimaera)

Hydrolagus marmoratus - Didier, 2008 (Marbled ghostshark)

Hydrolagus matallanasi - Soto & Vooren, 2004 (Striped rabbitfish)

Hydrolagus mccoskeri - L. A. K. Barnett, Didier, Long & Ebert, 2006 (Galápagos ghostshark)

Hydrolagus melanophasma - K. C. James, Ebert, Long & Didier, 2009 (Eastern Pacific black ghostshark)

Hydrolagus mirabilis - (Collett, 1904) (Large-eyed rabbitfish)

Hydrolagus mitsukurii - (D. S. Jordan & Snyder, 1904) (Spookfish)

Hydrolagus novaezealandiae(Fowler, 1911) (Dark ghostshark)

Hydrolagus ogilbyi - (Waite, 1898) (Ogilby's ghostshark)

Hydrolagus pallidus - Hardy & Stehmann, 1990 (Pale chimaera)

Hydrolagus purpurescens-  (C. H. Gilbert, 1905) (Purple chimaera)

Hydrolagus trolli - Didier & Séret, 2002 (Pointy-nosed blue chimaera)

Hydrolagus waitei - Fowler, 1907

Hydrolagus sp. - D/G (Giant black chimaera)

Hydrolagus sp. - F (Peruvian rabbitfish)


Family RHINCHIMAERIDAE - Longnose Chimaeras

Harriotta haeckeli (Smallspine spookfish) North Atlantic, taken in 1800-2600 m; specimens collected by Russian vessels from submarine seamounts of the Indian Ocean in 1400-1730 m; off St. Helens (Tasmania) in 1480-1700 m.

Harriotta raleighana (bentnose rabbitfish)

Neoharriotta carri - Bullis and Carpenter (Dwarf Sicklefin Chimaera).

Neoharriotta pinnata - Schnakenbeck, 1931 (Sicklefin Chimaera).

Neoharriotta pumila - Didier & Stehmann, 1996 (Arabian Sicklefin Chimaera).

Rhinochimaera africana (Paddle-nose chimaera)

Rhinochimaera atlantica (Knifenose chimaera)

Rhinochimaera pacifica (Pacific spookfish)
















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